How to cure paralysis in broiler chickens for full recovery

Posted by: Samuel Ezenwankwo 9 months, 3 weeks ago/ (1 comment)

Paralysis in broiler chickens has been a reoccurrence issue with broiler chickens, which has become a nightmare to farmers. The main reason why farmer dreads this condition is that paralysis in broiler is a multifactorial condition, and you need to fully understand these various causal factors for proper treatment of paralysis in broilers and management.

 

Paralyzed broiler chicken 

Paralysis in broiler chickens is more than leg issues. It can also be the inability to move ( and sometimes to feel anything ) in part or most of the body (neck, leg, wing, etc), typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury,  While lameness is a state of being unable to walk because of leg or foot pain. And lameness is a type of paralysis that is most common in broiler chickens and birds in general. In fact, when farmers talk about paralysis in their chickens they are mainly referring to lameness. So, in this post, I am going to use both words interchangeably to mean the inability to walk in broiler chickens.

Having understood the differences between paralysis and lameness let talk about paralysis in the broiler, then will look at various causes of paralysis in broilers, symptoms, and suggested solutions and treatment.

Also read: How to Stop watery whitish, greenish, brownish-yellow, and bloodstain in your Chickens poops for full Recovery

What is paralysis in broilers?

Paralysis in broiler is the inability of broiler chicken to walk due to diseases, toxins, injury, malnutrition, etc.

Before now, I always link the cause of paralysis in broilers to overweight, which might seem justifiable because the rate of growth in broilers is not proportional to the strength of the leg, so they tend to sit often on their hocks and, subsequently develop arthritis and then paralysis.  But paralysis is just more than overweight in broiler chickens.  

However, I have had my own ugly experience with broilers having leg issues and this can be so frustrating even when the fault is not from you. Within the past few weeks, I have been treating and nursing two of my broiler chicks having leg issues. One of the chicks recovers after a few days, while the other is still in isolation.

So, in this post I am going to share with you some of the tips and treatment I used in stopping paralysis in broilers, although not all leg paralysis is fixable, some may remain permanent for life while some may recover if discovered early and treated.

What causes paralysis in broilers?

Paralysis in broiler has a wide variety of causes,  this  include

  • overweight,
  • nutritional etiology,
  • infectious etiology, mainly Marek, Newcastle, and Botulism
  • developmental etiology,
  • pododermatitis, and even
  • parasites- Paralysis in poultry due to the larval stage of Argas persicus (tick) has been reported.    
  • Toxin
  • Injury

 

Also read:  6 smart tips to increase the bodyweight of your broiler chicken

Apart from signs and symptoms that could be specific to a particular disease/condition, you can also examine and use the age of the broiler chicken to narrow down the possible cause of the paralysis.

1Age of chickens

Whenever I am presented with a paralyzed broiler chicken, my first suspect is overweight, and Marek disease. However, most paralysis in broilers develops with age at various stages. Knowing the age at which a particular disease-causing paralysis starts to manifest will help you to eliminate other suspected options. For instance,  Marek disease can be caught in the first   2-3 weeks and manifest at 10-24 weeks. So, if the paralysis is older than 24 weeks, it is unlikely to be Marek’s disease.  Although, they are exceptional but rare.    

 2 Examine the bird

You have to examine the chicken for any abnormalities. Firstly, you have to know the recumbent of the bird (the way the bird is lying down). The way a paralyzed bird is lying may indicate the particular disease or condition responsible for the paralysis. For example, a broiler chicken suffering from Marek normally lies on its side with one leg outstretched, the same posture can be seen in broiler chicks suffering from Aspergillosis favus.  While in broiler chickens suffering from curled toes, overweight or bumblefoot normally sit on their hocks for support with a lot of pains.

 

In some cases, you have to examine for an injury that may result from transportation or when trying to catch the bird. Check the wings and legs for any sign of pain, dislocation, or arthritis. Broilers with injury-related paralysis normally feed well when it can access feed and water.

 

Next, I have to narrow these possible causes listed above into 3 categories for easy decision-making.

 

Note: For proper diagnoses, you have to visit a Vet because most of these paralysis related diseases have some symptoms in common, therefore, there is a need for differential diagnoses

 

Category 1

These are nutritional-related paralysis,  mostly due to a condition known as avitaminosis- a condition resulting from a deficiency of a particular vitamin like Vitamin E, D3, B2, etc This category also includes paralysis due to lack of some elements like calcium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium. Etc.

Here,  the broiler chicken can fully recover if discovered early and given the right medication and supplements.

 

Category 2

 

These are paralyzes caused by viral, fungi, or bacterial infection. Most of these infections are not curable, especially those caused by viruses.  Viral infections are mostly prevented by vaccination and biosecurity, while some of the bacterial and fungi infections are curable and some are not, but can prevent with proper medications and biosecurity. Examples of these infections are Newcastle disease, Marek disease, mycoplasmosis, reoviral arthritis, and Staphylococcus arthritis.

 

Here, vaccination and biosecurity are the safest ways to prevent these viral infections. Some people might try to sell you into buying all sorts of medications just for their own selfish interest. Save yourself the stress, of course, there are other signs to affirm your observations, these signs will be briefly explained – your sure bet will be an examination done by an expert or a Vet if you can afford it. But we know the Vet will not be available all the time, and we are left to do things ourselves. A whole lot of good books online on poultry diseases can be handy when the Vet is not available. You can check out the one got I from Amazon here

 

Category 3

 this category includes those paralyzes caused by external factors such as injury, toxins, and parasites. The broiler chicken can fully recover with proper care and medication, except in some extreme cases.

 

Now, I am going to cover the following in a tabular form for easy scanning and understanding

 

  • Diseases/conditions
  • Causes
  • Age affected
  • Mortality
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Control/suggested treatment

                                     

Category 1- Nutritional related paralysis

Condition Cause Age Mortality Signs and Symptoms Control/Suggested treatment
Vitamin E Deficiency Lack of complete nutrition Any High in broilers and young birds, but low in free-ranging birds Encephalomalacia (crazy chick disease), ataxia, disequilibrium, falling on the back, frequent movements with the wings, strongly stretched legs, and twisting of the head

Administer vitamin E through the feed or drinking water.

 

Administer a dose of Vitamin E  ( 300 IU per bird ) remission.

 

Add antioxidants to feed.
Vitamin D3 Deficiency Lack of complete nutrition 4 to 7 weeks Usually low in free-range birds. May be moderate to high in young, confined broiler chicks

Majorly rickets; these are the signs below

 

-weak bones causing curving and bending of bones,

-enlarge hock and knee joint

-tendency to drag hind legs, and

-beaded ribs and deformed thorax

Supplement Vitamin D3  ( 3300U/kg q7d prn) or (6600 U/kg once)

 

Provide access to sunlight

Calcium and Phosphorus deficiency Lack of complete nutrition Any Usually low in free-range birds. May be moderate to high in young, confined broiler chic Similar signs  (rickets) with Vitamin D3 deficiency, since vitamin D3 is responsible for the complete absorption of calcium and phosphorus Dietary supplement of calcium and phosphorus
Vitamin B2 Lack of complete nutrition Usually 15 – 30 days of age

Curled toe:

  • Reluctant to move
  • Walk with their hock with the aid of their wing
  • Dry and harsh skin
  • The chicks lie prostrate with their legs extended, sometimes in the opposite direction

Vitamin B2 supplement in feed and drinking water

 Give 100-mcg dose twice daily for complete treatment followed by an adequate amount in the feed.

                                                                               

 

Also read: 10 ways to sell and market your broiler chickens fast that are proven to work

Category 2: Infection-related paralysis

Disease Cause Age Mortality Signs and Symptoms Control/suggeted treatment
1.Newcastle Disease Virus Any

Mortality is due to the viral disease not as a result of the paralysis.

Mortality may reach 100%.

Paralysis: Balance and walking problem, twisted neck.

 

Other signs: gasping, difficulty in breathing, sneezing and coughing, swelling of the head, greenish poop.

 

Sudden death, often with few or minimal signs

Vaccination and biosecurity.

 

Give them  medications to enable them to stabilize before vaccination
2.Marek’s Disease Virus 3 – 30 weeks of age 0-30% in unvaccinated flocks

Paralysis: paralyzed in one or both leg(s), lies on its side, difficulty in standing. Pale eyes

Vaccination
3.Mycoplasmosis Bacterial Any Very low

Skeletal:  Joint swelling, blister, walking problem,

 

Others: Facial swelling, nasal discharge, coughing, foamy eyes

Vaccination, biosecurity

 

The antibiotics used to treat Mycoplasma include

erythromycin and tylosin, and tetracyclines, such as Oxytetracycline and doxycycline

 

Although, this infection remains for life ones contracted even when the bird doesn’t show any signs. Therefore you may repeat treatment monthly to keep Mycoplasma low

Bumblefoot

Bacterial

14-70 days 0-15%

Inflammation of the tendon sheath arthritis of the hock, stifle joint, reluctant to walk

Soak the affected foot in warm water containing Epsom salts, dry out the pus and apply antifungal, antibacterial, and antiseptic ointment or spray with Vetericyn, cover with gauze.

Avian Encephalomye-litis Virus Any, except newly hatched May reach 50% in young birds

Paralysis: difficulty in walking, tremors

 

Common in chickens lacking vitamin E
 Vaccination

                                           

Broiler chicken paralyzed by Marek disease

Category 3- Toxins and External Parasites

Condition Cause Age Mortality Signs and Symptoms Control/suggested treatment
Aflatoxicosis Toxin from fungus Young birds more severely affected Variable

difficulty walking

-convulsion

-Feather picking

Remove contaminated food

Botulism Toxin from a fungus that grows in rotting material It depends on how many birds consumed the toxin Any Paralysis, especially of the neck. Birds will be flaccid Removed source of the toxin, pick up carcasses, control flies, fix leaking water
External parasite Scaly leg mites Common in Growing and adult broilers Low

Limping and lameness

-roughened scale, which may bleed in severe cases

Cover the legs in a thick barrier of grease, oil,  or petroleum jelly and frequently (every 1-2 days) over 10-14 days. 

 

Don’t use kerosene or diesel- can burn the skin of the chicken

Scaly leg mites

Another cause of paralysis in broilers is the developmental etiology, which is mainly caused by poor hatchery management. Poor hatchery management could result in twisted legs, rotated tibia, and crooked toes in young chicks. Some of this poor management include substandard equipment,  lack of proper medication, and high temperature at the end of incubation. Reducing temperature at the end of incubation will help prevent lameness issues.- Dr. Edgar Oviedo (Extension Poultry Specialist, Broiler Management)

Leg issues will always be there. The solution to leg issues is to find the conditions that are causing the problem in the hatchery, transport vehicle, and farms- Oviedo

On the other hand, overcrowding can also cause paralysis, especially when they are scared by noises, which may lead to a stampede and follow by paralysis and in some cases death. And it harder to manage leg issues in a very large flock. Therefore, it is important to secure a manageable number of chicks from a reputable hatchery to avoid untold heartbreak.

References

Handbook of Poultry Diseases Important in Africa.

Edited by: Carol Cardona and Peter L, Msoffe. Handbook of Poultry Diseases Important in Africa.

 Developed by: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine Univ. Of Agriculture, Tanzanian

Department of Animal Science, University of Ghana, Legon

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Uganda

faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya and

The School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California

Lotta Waldenstedt. Nutritional factors of importance for optimal leg health in broilers.

Animal Feed Science and Technology. Volume 126, Issues 3-4, 9 March 2006, Pages 291-307

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