This post is your guide to a successful vaccination program. Vaccination is the first line of action in preventing poultry diseases. No level of hygiene or other practices can substitute vaccination in terms of poultry disease prevention- Prevention is always better than cure.
In this post, you will find
Poultry Vaccination plays an important part in the health management of the poultry birds. Numerous diseases are prevented by vaccinating the birds against them. A vaccine helps to prevent a particular disease by stimulating the bird’s immune system to produce antibodies that in turn fight the invading causal organisms.
Chickens with vaccines Kitts
Poultry disease is one of the most difficult challenges in poultry farming. Therefore, there is a need for proper sensitization on biosecurity, feeding, management, and vaccination, if you wish to have a happy bird. Now let us look at how a vaccine works.
Vaccines can prevent the spreading of dangerous diseases that affect both livestock and humans. Your safety, the safety of your poultry, and the safety of people who are going to contact the products of your farm depend on the health of your animals.
Illustration on how vaccines work
The principle of vaccination is in infecting a body with pathogenic organisms that have been properly processed in advance. These means allow the body to suffer the disease in the easiest possible form and create an immune response.
Next time when the body encounters the same pathogen, it will have a set of antibodies that will be able to fight the pathogen effectively. However, the effective immune response needs time to build up properly.
This is why all the living beings that are ever vaccinated should undergo this procedure in accordance with a certain schedule composed by specialists.
the active part of the vaccine is the live organism that causes the disease. As such, it is capable of inducing the disease in birds that have not had previous contact with the organism. Vaccinated birds in many cases can infect non-vaccinated birds if housed together.
A live vaccine of Fowlpox and its diluent
with this type of vaccine, the organism has been weakened by special procedures during manufacture so that it has lost its ability to cause the serious form of the disease.
At worst, the birds may contract a very mild form of the disease, however, the vaccine still can trigger the immune system to produce antibodies
with this type of vaccine the organism has been killed and is unable to cause the disease, although the ability to trigger the immune system remains.
In many cases, the level of immunity produced by this form of the vaccine is weaker than that produced by live and attenuated vaccines.
Vaccines are fragile in many respects and require very careful handling to ensure they retain their potency. Poor handling procedures will, in most cases, result in a rapid decline of potency.
1. On receipt of the vaccine on the farm, check and record:
2. As soon as possible place the vaccine into recommended storage condition.
3. Remove the vaccine from storage immediately prior to its being used. Do not mix what is required for an entire day at the start of the day and leave it to stand until required, as the vaccine will rapidly lose its efficacy.
4. Protect the vaccine after mixing it by holding them in an ice bath. Place ice in a small or similar container and place the container of the mixed vaccine in the ice.
Some vaccines have a very short life once mixed. For example, Marek’s Disease has a life of about 1.5 hours after mixing if held in an ice bath. It is much shorter if held in higher temperatures
5. Use the recommended administration techniques and do not vary these without veterinary advice
6. Always clean and sterilize the vaccinating equipment thoroughly after use
7. Always destroy unused mixed vaccines after the task has been completed. Some vaccines have the potential to cause harm if not destroyed properly
8. Do not vaccinate birds that are showing signs of disease or stress.
Vaccine cold box
A vaccine is administered by a specialist using a poultry vaccination schedule. Various methods of administering vaccines include
Wing web Vaccination
One of the most important poultry vaccination principles is starting from the very beginning of their life and keeping on through the official program until the last one is done. Below, you will find a detailed schedule that will guide you through the effective and resultant poultry vaccination.
|1 day||Mareks||Sc||herpesvirus and SB-1|
|14-21 days||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water||B1/Mass|
|14-21 days||Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro)||Water||Intermediate|
|5 week||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water or coarse spray||B1/Mass|
|8 -10 week||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water or coarse spray||B1 or LaSota/mass|
|10-12 week||Encephalomyelitis||Wing web||Liver, chick-embryo origin|
|10 - 12 week||Fowlpox||Wing web||Modified Live|
|10 -12 week||Laryngotracheitis||Intraocular||Modified Live|
|10 - 14 week||Mycopllasma gallisepticum||Intraocular or spray||Mild live strain|
|12 - 14 week||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||water or aerosol||B1 or LaSota/mass|
|16 -18 week||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Water or aerosol||B1 or LaSota/mass|
|Every 60-90 days or 18 week||Newcastle/infectious bronchitis||Parenteral||Inactivated|
|Marek's disease||1 day||SC||Turkey Herpesvirus and Sb -1 or Rispens strain for the high-challenge areas|
|Newcastle||14 - 21 days||Coarse spray||B1|
|14 -21 days||water or Coarse spray||Intermediate B1 or Lasota|
|Infectious bronchitis||1 day||Coarse spray||Massachusetts|
|14 -21 days||water or coarse spray||Massachusetts|
|Infectious bursal disease||14 - 21 days||water||intermediate|
b.Most USA commercial broiler hatcheries use an in ovo vaccination system for Marek's disease at17-19 days of embryonation. Infectious bursal disease vaccine (mild strain) may be combined with Marek's disease vaccines. Vectored vaccines in Which Marek's and fowlpox vaccines have been safely modified to carry immunizing antigens for laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, or infectious bursal disease are also commonly used in ovo or day-old chicks. Vaccination at 14-21 days is optional. A single drinking water application for Newcastle disease/bronchitis is also common.
In some vaccines administration, it is important to confirm if the vaccine has worked, or is “taken”.
A good example of this is the fowlpox vaccine, which is administered by wing stab. Within 7 to 10 days after vaccination, a “ take” should appear at the vaccination site.
This is in the form of a small pimple one-half to one centimeter in diameter.
However, If the take is larger and has a tacky core, it indicates that contaminants have been introduced either with the vaccine or with dirty vaccinating equipment. A check for takes would involve inspecting approximately 100 birds for every 10,000 vaccinated.
Nevertheless, if the vaccination has been unsuccessful, it may be necessary to re-vaccinate to obtain the desired protection.
In conclusion, vaccination is meant for preventive measures and not meant for the treatment of diseases. Make sure you follow the steps for safe handling of the vaccine on a farm for a successful vaccination program.
And most importantly, ensure you make use of the poultry vaccination schedule. Consult a specialist in areas that are highly technical.
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